Who designed the Purple Heart military decoration?
Elizabeth Will with U.S. Mint Chief Engraver John Sinnock can take credit. The medal is a revival of the earlier Badge of Military Merit. General Douglas MacArthur was influential in establishing the Purple Heart.
How are designs determined for military medals?
As of October 2004 all designs for military decorations, unit insignia and all other related designs are produced through the Army Institute of Heraldic program under the Office of the Administrative Assistant to the Secretary of the Army. The award program was first coordinated in 1919.
How far back can the pedigree or provenance for a coin be traced?
There may be earlier examples, but I am aware of ancient Greek and Roman coins countermarked by Leonello d’Este (1407-1450) to identify them as belonging to his collection. I wouldn’t recommend using this method today.
Were there one or many designs on the jetons likely used in colonial New Amsterdam?
Jetons were produced in France, Great Britain, Germany, the Low Countries and other places in Europe. Since jetons were privately issued, there was no rule regarding their diameter, metal composition or design elements. It has been estimated there were about 2,000 different Dutch jetons produced between 1568 and 1609 during the Dutch Revolt.
How can I collect New Amsterdam jetons?
Jetons were imported but never manufactured in New Amsterdam. You can collect period Low Country jetons that likely were used in New Amsterdam, or if possible you can collect jetons that have a provenance of having been excavated in New York City.
Were jetons used as money elsewhere in colonial America?
Jetons were likely used as money in various colonies, but none were produced for use in a specific colony. A significant group of 16th-century jetons was found within the ruins of a house dating from 1610 in Jamestown, Va., suggesting jetons were in circulation there perhaps that early.
Does anyone know about how many germs may be lurking on our bank notes?
There have been many studies about germs and bacteria on coins and bank notes. A 2012 Oxford University study in England suggested the average bank note carries 26,000 bacteria.